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Definitions of Vocabulary

Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes

Models and Naming of Organic Molecules

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Definitions (Ch. 22)


Organic compound
All carbon compuonds excluding carbon oxides, carbides, and carbonates.

Hydrocarbons
Any compound containing hydrogen and carbon.

Alkanes
Hydrocarbons with only single bonds.

Homologous series
A series of compunds that differ from one antother by a repeating unit.

Parent chain
The longest continuous chain of carbon atoms or groups of carbon atoms.

Substituent group
Any side branch on a branched-chain alkane.

Cyclic hydrocarbon
Any hydrocarbon that forms a ring-shaped structure.

Cycloalkane
A ring-shaped alkane.

Saturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with only single bonds.

Unsaturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with multiple bonds.

Alkene
A hydrocarbon with a double bond between at least two carbon atoms.

Alkynes
A hydrocarbon with a triple bond between at least two carbon atoms.

Isomer
Two or more compounds that have the same molecular formula but dfferent molecular structures.

Structural isomer
An isomer whose atoms are bonded in different orders. These have different physical and chemical properties

Stereoisomer
An isomer where the atoms are bonded in the same order but in different positions in space.

Asymmetrical carbon
A carbon atom that has four different atoms or groups of atoms attached to it.

Chirality
A property of a compund to exist in both left (l-) and right (d-) forms. It occurs whenever the compund contains an asymmetrical carbon.

Optical isomer
An isomer that has the same physical and chemical properties except in reactions where chirality is important.